Odo quidam etc. De usibus Herbarum. Publitius Jacob. Ars Memoriae, 4. Sixtus IV. Aegidius, De Urinarum judiciis, 4. Paduae Apuleius Platonicus sic Herbarium etc. Valturio Roberto. De fatti, e precetti militari, foI. Buzzacarenus Franciscus. Oratio ad Nicolem, e graeco in latinum etc. Carvajal Bernardinus. Oratio in die Circumcisionis etc.
Romae habita. Summaripa Zorzi. Martirio di S.
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Simone di Trento, 4. Compendium breve Institut. Sermoni di S. Leone tradotti, fol. Guarinus Veronensis. De brevibus clarorum hominum inter se consentientibus a PIutarcho collectis, 4. Lollius Antonius Geminianensis. Oratio in die Circumcisionis Comini. Marlianus Joannes Franciscus. Publicius Jacobus Florent. Ranutinus, recte Rinuccinus Alamannus. De virtut. Brixiae 4. Zeno, Diss. Vergerius Petrus Paulus. De ingenuis moribus, 4.
Barbarus Ermolaus. Oratio ad Frieder. Mora Alphonsus. Oratio coram Innocent. VIII 4. Probus Valerius. De litter antiq. De Aciebus instruendis, Theod. Gazae Interpr. Romae, , 4. Miniatore Bartolomeo. Formulario di Epistole. De Re Milit. Propertius cum Catul. Pulci Luigi. Il Driadeo. Refrigerio Gio. Trionfo del Refrigerio. Vegetius Flavius. Rei milito 4. Proposito Univo Item Senecae Boetii etc. Chieregatus Leonellus. Diog Laert. Epistole tradotte. Sabellicus M. De Venet. Mantuanus Baptista.
De suorum temporum calamitatibus, 4. De Rosenheym Petrus. Opus roseum appellato Memor. Spretus Desiderius. De Amplit. Vite de Filosofi antichi, 4. De Voragine Jacobus. Legendae Sanctorum, fol. Albanus Bonajutus. De Insulis. Doctrinale altum, seu Liber Parabol. Bembus Bonif.
Oratio in Sapient. Ludovici Mauri, etc. Della Pazienza. Colatius Mattheus cognom. De Civiltate etc. Dandulus Faustinus. Fidei Instruct. Facetus Magister. Liber Metricus etc. Coloniae 4. Foresi Bastiano. Libro chiamato Ambizione, 4. Regius Raphael. Epistolae Plinii enarrat. Thesmophagia, sive de Moribus, et Facetiis, etc.
Vicecomes Fr. Hieronymus O. Lamiarum, sive Striarum Opusc. Mediolani Catolicon Vocabulista, Joannis de Janua fol. Astronomi veteres, 4. Bonincontrus Laurentius. Christianae Religionis etc. Gerson Giovanni De Imitatione Christi. In volgare, 4. De Monticelli Domenico. Epistole di Ovidio in terza rima, 4.
Pamphilus Venclanus sic. Politianus Angelus. Praelectio, cui titulus Panepistemon, 4. Florentiae Villanovanus de Villanova. Augustonus Joan. Prognosticon, in 4. Baduarius Sebastianus. Oratio ad Alexander VI, 4.
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Bigo Pictorius Ludovicus. Carminum tumultuariorum, libri sette, 8. Carvajal Bernard. Oratio de elig. Mantauro, 4. Collatinus Petrus. Ad Ilienses. Francisci Philelphi Iinterprete. Cremonae, 4. Haedus Petrus. Lucanus Pharsalia. In lingua volgare, Milano. Lucarus Nicolaus. Laudatio Baptistae Biasi Astronomi. Marsuppinus Carolus. Homeri Batracomyomachia, 4. Perleonio Giuliano detto Rustico Romano.
Raccolta de Poeti, compendio di Sonetti ed altre rime di varie texture, intitolato lo Perleone 4. Napoli, Philelphus Marius. Epistolae, 4. Purliliarum Jacobus Com. De Laudibus Eloquentiae, 4. Spinola Jacobus. Oratio ad Ludov. Tuppo Francesco. Vita di Esopo latina, e volgare, 4. Tygrinus Nicolaus. Oratio ad Alexandrum VI. Uomini famosi da anni in qua, fino alla morte di Lorenzo de aMedici, in 4. Bellovacensis Vincent. Speculo Histor. Pungilingua, 8.
Dati Giuliano. Breve Trattato di Roma, 4. Giustiniano S. Trattato della vita Monastica, Venatia, 4. Lascaris Constant. De octo Parto Orat. Maynus Jason. Oratio in Nuptiis Maximil. Anathomia emendata, 4. Petrobonus Hieronymus. Bentivola, sive de Laudibus Bentiv.
Aristotelis opera. VI, in fol. Britanicus Gregorius O. Sermones funebres etc. Venetiis 8. Campanus Joannes Antonius. Opera omnia fol. Ferretus Nicolaus. De ordine, et junet. Composito ornatae, 4. Manucius Aldus. Linguae elementa 4. Responsio Oratoribus Genuensibus in debit. Urbis in aree, Mediolani 4.
Passeverius Aloysius. Historia Lepida de quibusdam ebriis Mercatoribus, 4. Paulus Venetus, Tract. ValI a Laurentius. Fabulae Aesopi e graeco in lat. Vinciguerra Antonius Chronici. Ad magnum Virum Mare. Georgium Venet. Utrum deceat Sapienti uxorem ducere, an in caelibatu vivere.
In versi volgari. Bologna in 4. Benedetti, seu Benedicti Alexandri. Diaria de Bello Carolina, in 4. Aldo, Carrariensis Raphael. De Prosodia 4. Pauli ad Corinthios. Donato 4. De Mandavilla Joan. Itinerario 4. Vergerius Petrus. Bolzanus Fr. Urbanus O. Mancinellus Antonius.
Maturantius recte Mataratius Franciscus. De componendo carmine 4. Psalterium B. Valgulius Carolus. Cleomedis de contemplatione urbium etc. Amasaeus Gregorius. Borro Fr. Trionfi, Sonetti, Canzoni, etc. Brescia Dati Augustinus, Elegantiolae. Disputatio inter Clericum, et Militem. Parisiis 4. Manteanus Baptista. Eclogae in 4. Amasaeus Hieronymus. Vaticinium, qua praedicitur universum Orbem etc. Astronomi Veteres. Beroalbi Phylip. Orationes, et Opuscula 3. Bojardo Matteo. Sonetti, e Canzoni 4. Capella Martian. Opera omnia. Cretens, et Dater. Ethimologicum Magnum.
Laetus Pomponius. Historiae Compendium, 4. Lexicon Graec. Maynerius Accursius Avenionensis. Opus de Interpret. Saxi Pomphili. Epigrammata etc. Commento in X. Leonardi Aretini, Epistolae. Erotemata, sine anno, foI.
Mediolani etiam. Virgilii Opera. Aldus Philelphi Epistolae. Ammonii, et Magentini Commentaria. Guerini Veronensis Erotemata Graeca. Aldo Poliphili Hypnerotomachia. Aldus foI. Il Cortigiano. Urbani Bellunensis. Grammatica Graeca. Aldus, , 4. Aldus , foI. Geographiae Veteris Scriptores Graeci minores. Oxoniae , in 8. Tomi IV. Corps universel diplomatique du droit des gens. Tomi XIV, Amsterdam Tomi VI, foI. Amsterdam Montfaucon Paleographia Graeca, foI. Storia della Provenza Tomi 2, foI. IV, in 4. Paris in 12, fig. Carte geografiche di varii paesi, Tomi due folio massimo.
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Summano li libri levati coi codici dalla suddetta Libreria dei PP. Domenicani Osservanti delle Zattere di Venezia al N. Somaschi di S. Dante Alighieri. De vulgari eloquio libri duo, Cod. Dionysius Halicarnasseus. Pietro Lando N. Francesco Donato N. Marcantonio Trevisan N.
Francesco Venier N. Lorenzo Priuli N. Girolamo Priuli N. Alvise Mocenigo N. Pasqual Cicogna N. Marin Grimani N. Giovanni Dolfin N. Miniature N. Ariosto Lodovico. Nuovamente adornato di figure in rame di Girolamo Porro. Venetia, per Francesco de Franceschi, , in fol. Bembo Pietro. De Aethna ad Angelum Chabrielem. Impressum Venetiis, in aedibus Aldi, Boccaccio Giovanni.
Decamerone nuovamente corretto, con tre Novelle aggiunte, Aldo, , 4. Castiglione Baldassarre. Il Cortigiano, Venezia, Aldo , foi. Sperone Speroni scritte con inchiostro, ed altre rosse di Alessandro Tassoni scritte di sua mano. Venetia, per il figlio di Aldo, , in 8. Graece cum argumentis Libanii, Venetiis, in aedibus Aldi, Diodorus Siculus.
Girarli Cinthio. Gli Hecatommith. De mysteriis Aegyptiorum, Chaldaeorum, Assyriorum, latinae tantum. Venetiis, in aedibus Aldi, , foI. Isocrates Atheniensis Orator. Item Harpocration. Manutius Aldus junior. Dictionarium Graecum cum latina interpretazione. Venetiis, in aedibus Aldi De Re Militari ad Theodosium Augustum; de magistratibus urbis, et sacerdotiis. Et de legibus, una cum Svetonio De Grammaticis. Venetiis, per Barth. Cremonensem, ac Barth. Perottus Nieolaus Sipontinus. Cornucopia, Venetiis, in aedibus Aldis, , fol. Opusculum de Herone, et Leandro. Venetiis, Aldus, 4.
Petrarca, il Canzoniere, coi Trionfi. Venetia, Aldo, , 8. Petrarcha Francesco. Florentiae, apud Sanctum Jacobum de Ripoli, , fol. Phalaridis Epistolae ab Aretino Latinate donatae. Sine loci, ac typographi nota. Licophronis Alexandr. Aldus, , in 8. De honesta voluptate. In Civitate Austriae, apud Gerardum de Flandria, , in 4. Pompilius Paulus. De Triumpho Granatensi.
Romae impressit Eucharis Gilber, alias Franch. Ravennas Petrus, Phoenix, sive de Artificiosa memoria. Bernardinus de Choris de Cremona. Venetiis impressit , in 4. Verardus Carolus. Historia Baetica ad Cardinale m Riarium Romae, , in 4. Edizione preziosissima. Verardus Marcellinus. Romae, Silber, , in 4. Vietor AureI. Absque ulla nota. Terentius Publius. Cum Adnot. Mediolani apud Zarottum, , fol.
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Aretino Pietro. Paris, , 8. Ciesole Jacopo. Trattato del giuoco degli scacchi ridotto alla morale. Firenze, , per Antonio Miscomini. Folengo Teofilo. Caos del tri per uno. Vinegia, per Gio. Antonio e fratelli da Sabbio, , 8. Durerus Albertus. De varietate figurarum flescuris, et partium ac gestibus imaginum lib. Norimbergae — in aedibus viduae Durerianae, fol. Martelli Lodovieo. Opere corrette, e con diligenza stampate, aggiuntovi il quarto libro di Virgilio tradotto dal medesimo.
Firenze, pei Giunti, , 8. Martialis M. Epigrammata cum notis Farnabii, et variorum, accurante Schrevelio. Menzini Benedetto. Amsterdam, , in 8. Le stesse, senza luogo e tempo in 8. Firenze Nouveau Recueil des Harangues in Bonason Giulio. Amorosi diletti degli Dei, e varie figure umane in 4. Vega, Joseph de la, discorsos accademicos morales retoricos y Sagrados.
Ambres, , 8. Barbieri Gianfrancesco. Disegni di paesi intagliati da Giovanni Penna. Domenico Fontana. Roma, , in fol. Roma, , in 8. Buffagnotti Carlo Antonio. Prospettive, foI. Arbiter Petronius. Satyricon; accedunt diversorum poetarum lusus in Priapum etc. Amtelodami, per Jo: Bleu, , in 8. Uccelli diversi cavati dal naturale, intagliati in rame da Francesco Villamena.
Sadeler Justus. Animalium quadrupedum omnis generis imagines.
Sadeler Justus, Pisces, Icones variae. Sadeler Marco, ed Egidio. Theatrum etc. Disegni, raccolta. Sanctius Raphael Urbinas. Sadeler Joannes, et RaphaeI. Solitudo, seu Patrum Heremicolarum figurae sculptae ab iisdem. Pas Joannes Crispinus, Icones variae ab ipso delineatae, 4. Vaenius Otho. Bathavorum bellum cum Romanis ex lib. IV et V Historiarum Taciti descriptum, et aeneis figuris expressum. Antuerpiae, , in 4. Gallaeus Philippus. Equorum Jcones a Stradano dipictae, et Gallaeo, et Goltzio excussae, 4. Venetiones ferarum a Joanne Stradano dipictae. Tempesta Antonio. Roma urbs. Disegni di molte fabbriche antiche di essa.
Vasi grotteschi. Diverse Fontane, fol. Bosio Antonio. Roma sotterranea, accresciuta da Gio: Severani, e pubblicata da Carlo Aldobrandino. Roma appresso Guglielmo Facciotti — , in fol. Villamena Francesco. Francesco, scolpita in rame. Roma , in 4. Teniers David. Theatrum Pictorium. Antuerpiae, apud Hen. Verdussen, , fol. Perrier Francesco. Icones et segmenta illustrium, et marmore tabularum quae Romae ad hunc extant delineata, et incisa. Parisiis, Durerus Albertus, Epitome in divae Parthenices Mariae Historiam per figuras digestam, cum versibus annexis Chelidonii, Norimbergae, , fol.
Molte figure dello stesso. Vandyck Antonius. Icones Principum, Regum, Archiducum, imperio bellorum duces gerunt, aut in iisdem praefecturis insignoribus laudabiliter functis, sunt imagines, et succincte rerum gestarum descriptiones. Veneponti, per Joannem Agricolam, , fol. Carte da lui intagliate attinenti alla storia romana. Zanchi Girolamo Francesco. Gemme, e statue raccolte.
Cassini Gio: Somasco, Nuova raccolta delle migliori vedute antiche, e moderne di Roma dal suddetto incise. Roma, Monaldini, , fol. Canale Antonio. Urbis Venetiarum prospectus celebriores ab Antonio Visentino aere expressi. Pasquali, Rizzi Marco.
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Paesi da lui disegnati, e fatti incidere dal Zanetti n. Sadeler Egidio. I dodici Cesari dipinti da Tiziano, disegnati, ed intagliati, da esso: in fine sta la fomosa Moretta di Tiziano, fol. Montfaucon Bernardus. Paris, chex Florentin Delamine, , in fol.
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Tomi dieci. Supplement Paris, , in fol. Tomi cinque. Plautus M. Aedem, cum variorum notis, et recentione Friederici Gronovii. Valerius Flaccus. Leidae, , 4. Seneca Aennaeus. Horatius Flaccus. De arte poetica cum commentariis rancisci Lusini. Venetiis, per Aldum, , in 4. Buonaroti Michael Angelus. Icones variae ab ipso depictae, et incisae ab Adamo Mantuano, in 4. Lucanus M. Aenneus, Pharsalia. Cum notis variorum, nempe Hugonis Grotii etc. Amstelodami, per Elzevirium, Seneca Aenneus, et Pub.
Sententiae cum notis variorum. Lugduni Batavorum, per Nakios, , in 8. Il Canzoniere ricorretto dal Dolce, cogli avvertimenti di Giulio Camillo. Vinegia, per Gabriel Giolito, Venezia, per Aldo, Venezia, per Aldo, , con molte note a penna. Simboli, ed Emblemi diversi. Aristotelis, Rhetoricorum, cum notis variorum. Cantabrigiae, typis Academicis, , in 8. Cicero M. Opera omnia, Venetiis, per Aldum, Rhetore selecti, G.
Oxoniae Theatro Scheldoniano, , in 8. Rhetoricorum variorum Autorum, Venetiis, per Aldum, , fol. I due primi Capitoli, o Canti, 8. Arlotto Mainardi Pievano. Motti e facezie, con la sua vita al principio. Firenze per Zuchetta, 4. Poggio Fiorentino. Venezia, per Ottino di Pavia, , in 4.
Il Decamerone, fol. Boiardo Matteo Maria. Orlando innamorato, ora rifatto dal Berni. Venetia, per i Giunti, , 8. Tasso Bernardo. Venetia, per il Giolito, , in 4. Tasso Torquato. Il Rinaldo. Venetia, per Sanese, , in 4. Allegri Alessandro. Rime piacevoli, Verona, per Francesco dalle Donne, , , , Parti IV, VoI.
Medici Lorenzo padre di Papa Leone. Rime sacre con quelle di Lucrezia sua madre, ed altre della stessa famiglia, raccolte ed ornate di osservazioni da Francesco Cionacci. Caccie varie, disegnate ed intagliate dallo stesso. Stagi Andrea Anconitano. Cornazzano Antonio. Firenze, per Antonio di rancesco Viniziano, Il Morgante. Firenze, per Bortolo Sermartelli, , 4. Tansillo Luigi. Il vendemmiatore, Venetia, per Costantini, , in 4. Cantagallina Remigio. Oeuvres diverses. Haye, chez Musson.
Tomi quattro, fol. Gorius Antonius Franciscus. Thesaurus veterum Diptycorum. Florentiae, ex Typographia Altizzini, fol. Tomi III. Passerius Joan. Picturae Etruscorum in vasculis. Romae, typis Zampel. Les Oeuvres traduites en Francois per Madame Dacier. Amsterdam, chez Wetstein, et Smith, , vel. Terenzio Publio. Il formione. Parma, per Bodoni, , in 4. Raccolta di autori di Opere di Musica [ Collection of authors of music works ]. Marcello Benedetto Estratto poetico armonico sopra i salmi. Venezia, Parti VIII. Tomi 4, in folio. The next morning, a formal vote was taken, and it was Cardinal Farnese's privilege to announce to the people the election of Cardinal de' Medici as Pope Pius IV.
He was crowned by Cardinal Farnese on 6 January The Pope was a friend of his, and he was able to avoid the unpleasantries of international affairs, as he built a circle of friends in the College of Cardinals and in the Roman Curia. Lorenzo in Damaso, a post he held for less than a month. He distanced himself from the horrors surrounding the fall of the Carafa nephews in Pius was not a healthy man, and his anticipated demise gave Farnese and others time to plan.
The French, at this time Catherine de' Medicis, having learned nothing from or , still offered their support to Cardinal Ippolito d'Este. He was in fact very active behind the scenes. He wanted a pope who would make him Duke of Tuscany , and would validate his control over Siena, and he had already picked out Cardinal Ghislieri. He did not arrive in time though. And then there was Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, who was campaigning for himself. There were fifty-two cardinals in attendance on 20 December Seventeen cardinals were under the age of forty, seven of whom were under the age of thirty.
Farnese was personally beloved by the Roman populace as a patron of the poor and a Maecenas of the arts. The cardinals created by Pius IV numbered nine, and under certain circumstances might draw four more. The Gonzaga faction had six members.
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The cardinals created by Julius III numbered five. The Florentines had between four and six. The Venetians had three. Six French cardinals did not come to the Conclave at all. The large number of factions would present a major difficulty for anyone trying to put together a two-thirds majority.
Nationality was not the only way of dividing up the cardinals either. There were the seniors and the juniors, and the eager reformers and the complacent majority. As soon as the Conclave opened, Cardinal Borromeo, who, as the nephew of the late pope, considered himself a leader, if not a pope-maker, approached Cardinal Farnese, who had the largest number of commitments.
He indicated that he thought that Cardinal Morone should be pope. This was in accordance with the wishes of the Emperor, and Morone had been one of the Presidents of the Council of Trent. Farnese seemed friendly and willing to please, which Borromeo wrongly took as an agreement to supply votes. There were those who would never vote for a friend of the Emperor, and there were those who remembered Morone's troubles with the Inquisition, and the bull of Paul IV which had stated that no one who was arrested, imprisoned, or convicted by the Inquisition could ever vote in a papal election, let alone be elected pope.
It is alleged that both Alessandro Farnese and Ippolito d'Este had grudges against Morone due to decisions which he had made while Legate in Bologna. When it came to a vote, Morone got twenty-nine votes. Farnese must have realized that he was in somewhat the same situation himself. He could muster between twenty-eight and thirty votes, but not the thirty-five needed to elect. In his straightforward way, Borromeo then went on to his second candidate, Cardinal Sirleto, but he too failed. Borromeo was delighted with the naming of Cardinal Ghislieri: .
Having known the Cardinal of Alessandria [Ghislieri] for a considerable time, and conceived a high esteem for him on account of his singular holiness and zeal, I judged that no more fitting Pontiff than he could be found to rule the Christian commonwealth wisely and well. I therefore took up his cause with all my might; and with little delay he was elected Pope to the great satisfaction of all. Nothing could be so great a consolation to me in my grief for my uncle, as the certainty that he is succeeded by one who possesses all the qualities that your Eminence sympathizes with me in lamenting, and who with equal courage and strength of soul will know how to maintain and uphold the authority of religion.
Within two hours, they had sufficient votes to elect Ghislieri. It was 7 January That afternoon, the Cardinals assembled and took a vote; two cardinals voted from their sickbeds. The votes were not by secret ballot, but out loud. Ghislieri was elected unanimously and took the name Pius V. Borromeo and Farnese had made a pope. Peter, resident in Viterbo. This is recorded on the inscription of a new town gate. Transportation was provided by four galleys lent by the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem.
At Monreale, he conducted a diocesan synod. He resigned the diocese on 9 December Cardinal Farnese was on the docks at Civitavecchia to welcome home the hero, his brother's brother-in-law. One of the determining factors in the minds of the electors was the recent Battle of Lepanto 7 October It had been a stunning defeat for the Ottoman Turks, the first naval defeat in more than a century, and nearly their entire navy was destroyed. But they did not lose control over the Eastern Mediterranean, and they were already rebuilding their navy at lightning speed.
In some people's minds, what was needed was a pope who could hold the various forces together: a Crusading pope who would also be generous with Church money to finance the war. The new pope must also be a strong and strict defender of the Faith in the face of unorthodoxy and one who would enforce the decrees of the Council of Trent ; ; There were other problems that a pope would have to face. Mary's relatives, the Guises, were the leaders of the devout hyper-Catholic party in France, who were eager for a show-down with the Huguenots.
Catherine de Medicis was attempting to avoid a civil war in France, and she believed that the marriage of her daughter Margot with Henri of Navarre, a Protestant, might avert disaster but dispensations would be required of the pope. She was also trying to tempt Queen Elizabeth into marriage with her son, Henri, and that would require papal cooperation as well. Her choices were the Cardinal of Ferrara, Ippolito d'Este , who was as disliked in as he had been in With the French and Florentine votes, in fact, Cardinal d'Este had the resources to block any candidate he pleased the 'virtual veto'.
D'Este, however, was not electable. Cardinal Farnese believed that this was his conclave, and he was making every effort to win supporters. He knew, however, that the Spanish were against him. On the night of the opening of the Conclave, Cardinal Granvelle arrived from Naples. Shortly after his entry into the Conclave, he produced an unopened letter which he said had reached him while he was on the highway from Naples. It was from Philip II. Granvelle opened the letter in Cardinal Farnese's presence and read the contents, which ordered Granvelle to advise Farnese that he was not to attempt to become pope "this time"—it should be remembered that, experienced as he was, Cardinal Farnese was only fifty-one.
Farnese's chances ended on the first day of the Conclave. Boncompagni was the obvious candidate. He was acceptable to Cardinal Borromeo and the reformers. He was a successful Nuncio in Spain, and was acceptable to the Spanish faction, which included Naples. The Conclave turned out to be a very short one. Cardinal d'Este, one of Alessandro Farnese's favorite enemies, died on 2 December In the Spring of , an embassy from Japan was making its way to Rome. They arrived by ship at Livorno on March 1, and proceeded by land through Tuscany.
They proceeded on to Rome, accompanied by Cardinal Francesco Gambara, and were received with a grand show of hospitality at Caprarola by Cardinal Alessandro Farnese. Accompanied by Gambara and Farnese, the embassy reached Rome on 22 March. There were sixty-two living cardinals, but only thirty-two managed to make it to Rome in time for the opening ceremonies of the Conclave on Easter Sunday, 21 April Cardinal Farnese, though he was only sixty-four years old, was the senior cardinal present.
Thirty-nine cardinals, many of them his friends and supporters, had died during the reign of Gregory XIII. There was only one other cardinal present who had been created by his grandfather, Paul III. After the first vote, on 23 April, it was obvious that neither a strong Spanish candidate nor a strong French candidate could be elected.
Madruzzo's chosen candidate was Cardinal Sirleto, but in a meeting with d'Este shortly after he entered the Conclave on the 24th, it was made clear to him that Sirleto was being excluded by the votes of the French. Madruzzo declared that he would not accept Albani. D'Este met with Cardinal Farnese, hoping to stop any effort that Farnese might begin to exclude Montalto.
Farnese already believed that Montalto had little real support, and d'Este encouraged that misapprehension. But, when all the likely votes were tallied, it seemed that the supporters of Montalto lacked four votes, which would have to come from Farnese. When the Cardinals assembled to begin the balloting, d'Este suddenly intervened and announced that it was not necessary to proceed to a ballot since they already had a pope—Cardinal Montalto.
The cardinals immediately proceeded to 'adore' Montalto—which was a legitimate method for electing a pope. There had to be no opposition, and there was none. Farnese had been silenced and coerced into cooperation. In the Spring of , Cardinal Farnese's young nephew Ranuccio, aged 17, came to Rome to swear allegiance for his domains of which the Church was the feudal souverain. He made the mistake of appearing before Pope Sixtus V in armor carrying weapons, and for that horrible crime he was imprisoned in the Castel S.
His uncle the Cardinal pleaded twice with the Pope to have him released, and finally contrived to have Ranuccio escape. Angelo to dinner, while the Cardinal tricked the guards into releasing Ranuccio into his custody. The Pope was livid at having been circumvented. Alessandro Farnese is remembered for gathering the greatest collection of Roman sculpture assembled in private hands since Antiquity,  now mostly in Naples, after passing by inheritance to the Bourbon-Parma kings.
He was also a great patron of living artists including, most notably, El Greco. Under the direction of his curator and librarian, the antiquarian iconographer Fulvio Orsini , the Farnese collections were enlarged and systematized. Farnese collected ancient coins and commissioned modern medals. He had paintings by Titian , Michelangelo , and Raphael , and an important collection of drawings. He commissioned the masterpiece of Giulio Clovio , arguably the last major illuminated manuscript , the Farnese Hours , which was completed in after being nine years in the making now the property of the Morgan Library , New York.
The Farnese Gardens became one of the first botanical gardens in Europe. In September , they had a son, Giuliano. Clelia's husband died in On 2 August , at the Farnese palace in Caprarola, she married her second husband, Marco Pio di Savoia , Lord of Sassuolo; the marriage was without issue. Clelia died in The absence of scandal concerning her birth suggests that Cardinal Farnese was not yet in Holy Orders ca. Cardinal Alessandro Farnese wrote a will in , and added codicils in , but these were revoked and replaced by a new will, written on 22 June , with codicils added in July and August.
On 7 July , the physician of the Duke of Urbino , Vincenzo Remosetti, was summoned to a consultation at the Farnese Palace at Caprarola, "per uno grande accidente di epilepsia," accompanied by severe respiratory problems. The Cardinal was gravely ill. He was subjected to the usual quackery , cautery and bleeding.
Camillo Caetani, the brother of Cardinal Enrico Caetani, who kept his brother informed of Farnese's condition. On 13 August, the doctor had to return to Rome; he left the Cardinal restless and weak, and suffering from "gotta" in his left arm. On 28 February , he suffered an attack of some sort, perhaps a stroke "ictus". Cardinal Farnese died quietly of the effects of apoplexy in Rome on 2 March , at the age of seventy.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Rosini , Il Palazzo Farnese di Caprarola , pp. The authors are unaware of Henri II's revocation of the grant. The office produced the highest annual income of all the curial offices. Gulik and C. Schmitz-Kallenberg Monasterii , p. He made his solemn entry on March 18, , and resided until June, Gallia christiana Tomus primus Paris , Cardinal Alessandro wrote a letter to the King of Portugal upon his appointment, informing him that he would not be able to visit the diocese personally: Caro, Lettere Farnese I, p.
In the summer of , he wrote to the Papal Nuncio in Portugal on the subject of the "frutti di Viseo", to ensure that the pension was safe and that it was paid in Rome as usual: Caro, Lettere Farnese I, pp. One-quarter of the fruits was to be reserved for the repair of the fabric of the Cathedral. Gallia christiana XIV p.
Marocco, Istoria del celebre imperial Monastero Farfense Roma , p. Eneide di Virgilio, del commendatore Annibale Caro Milano Raccolta di poeti classici italiani antichi e moderni. Laupp , Documents relevant to the Conclaves of Dr. Rosini , Il Palazzo Farnese di Caprarola , especially pp.
Zaccaria, Vol. III Roma , p. Zaccaria, III Roma , p. Sclopis, Le Cardinal Jean Morone p. Betts , A Glance at the Italian Inquisition. A Sketch of Pietro Carnesecchi London , p. A document reported in Revue d'histoire diplomatique , 19 , p. Letter of Cardinal Louis de Guise 27 September Adams : Cosimo de' Medici. London: Samuel Buckley , tomus quartus p. The story may only be a legend. Romano Canosa, I segreti dei Farnesi Rome , p. In the Jubilee Year Affanni, P. Prince Carlo Alexander, Duke of Parma.
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