Password confirmation. Forgotten Password. Please enter your password Forgotten your password? Continue Cancel Send email OK. Page 1 of 3. Next page. Recent searches:. Honey-coloured stone houses in the ancient village of Dereici, in the Syriac Tur Abdin region of southeastern Turkey. Syriac women leaving the church after mass. An old stone mansion in the government guest house in the town of Midyat, located in Mardin province in southeast Turkey.
Mor Gabriel Monastery, the oldest living Syriac Orthodox monastery in the world. In addition to writings about feminine virtue by Gregory of Nyssa and Gregory of Nazianzos , later texts about Nicholas of Sion and Theodore of Sykeon described miracles and rural life. Edessa was an early center of Syriac Orthodox Church , which had accepted only the first three ecumenical councils : Nicaea , Constantinople and Ephesus They were strongly opposed to Chalcedonian Creed that had been established by the Council of Chalcedon in In the 5th and 6th centuries, the Oriental Orthodox Church that originated in Antioch continued to fracture into multiple denominations.
With the arrival of the crusaders many Orthodox bishops, particularly in Antioch, were replaced by Latin prelates. Antioch was also the place where the followers of Jesus were called "Christians" for the first time in history, as well as being the site of one of the earliest and oldest surviving churches , established by Saint Peter himself. For a thousand years, the Hagia Sophia was the largest church in the world. Apostle John is reputed to have taken Virgin Mary to Ephesus in western Turkey, where she spent the last days of her life in a small house, known as the House of the Virgin Mary , which still survives today and has been recognized as a holy site for pilgrimage by the Catholic and Orthodox churches, as well as being a Muslim shrine.
The cave of the Seven Sleepers is also located in Ephesus. In the 19th century, there were nationalistic campaigns against Assyrians which often had the assistance of Kurdish paramilitary support. In , Turks and Kurds massacred tens of thousands Assyrians in Siirt. Assyrians were attacked in the Hakkari mountains by the Turkish army with the help of Kurdish tribes, and many Christians were deported and about a quarter million Assyrians were murdered or died due to persecution. This number doubles if the killings during the s are included. The Kurds fought the Assyrians also due to fears that the Armenians, or European colonial powers backing them, would assume control in Anatolia.
In the s the Hamidiye Kurdish paramilitary units attacked Armenians in a series of clashes that culminated in the pogroms of and the Adana massacre in It is estimated that between 80, and , Armenians were killed during these pre-War massacres.
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During the tumultuous period of the first world war, up to 3 million indigenous Christians are alleged to have been killed. According to professor Martin van Bruinessen , relations between Christians and Kurdish and other Muslim peoples were often bitter and during World War I "Christians of Tur Abdin in Turkey for instance have been subjected to brutal treatment by Kurdish tribes, who took their land and even their daughters".
In September more than 30 Armenian and Assyrian villages were burnt by Kurdish and Turkish mobs in the Urmia region. There was a policy during the Hamidian era to use Kurdish tribes as irregulars Hamidiye units against the Armenians. The Greek forces who occupied Smyrna in the post-war period were defeated in the Turkish War of Independence which ended with the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne. Under the terms of the peace treaty , 1. Other terms of the treaty included various provisions to protect the rights of religious minorities and a concession by the Turks to allow the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate to remain in Istanbul.
The U. The report does note some areas of improvement such as better protection of the property rights of non-Muslims. In the pre-war period American missionaries had been actively involved in the Ottoman education system. Many of the schools were closed down and suffered under stringent regulations and burdensome taxes during the country's secularization.
Historically, these schools had worked with the Ottoman Empire's Christian communities, and were regarded with suspicion by the fledgling state. One contemporary account noted that "If American opinion has been uninformed, misinformed and prejudiced, the missionaries are largely to blame. Interpreting history in terms of the advance of Christianity, they have given an inadequate, distorted, and occasionally grotesque picture of Moslems and Islam.
A number of high-profile incidents targeting non-Muslims, including Christians, have occurred since the modern Turkish Republic was founded in In , one German Protestant and two Turkish converts were tortured to death in Malatya by five men in the Zirve Publishing House murders. Turkish media called these killings the "missionary massacres".
In , Turkey's National Security Council reported that it considers Protestant missionaries the third largest threat to Turkey's national security, surpassed only by Islamic fundamentalism and the Kurdish separatist organization PKK. A report by the Turkish Armed Forces TAF similarly recommended implementing new laws to curb missionary activity.
According to the Turkish Evangelical Churches movement, Turkish Protestant churches had only 3, members in —about half of these were converts from Islam, while the others were Armenian and Syriac Christians. Turkey's Christian community has been largely non-disruptive, with the notable exception of one convert, who hijacked Turkish Airlines Flight with the stated intent of flying it to the Vatican to meet the Pope and ask for his help to avoid serving in a "Muslim army".
In , the Washington Post reported that members of the ruling Ak Parti had expressed their desires to convert Hagia Sophia into a mosque. Hagia Sophia, which is called ayasofya in Turkish , is an ancient church dating to AD that was converted into a mosque after Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in It has been a museum since Patriarch Bartholomew objected to the government's rhetoric, saying "If it is to reopen as a house of worship, then it should open as a Christian church. The monastery, one of Byzantium 's most important, was sacked during the Crusades and later served as a mosque for a time, until it was converted to a museum during the 20th-century.
There is ethnic Turkish Protestant Christian community in Turkey which number about 7,,   adherents most of them came from Muslim Turkish background. Today the Christian population of Turkey is estimated at around , , Christians.
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By the 21st-century, Turkey's Greek Orthodox population had declined to only around 2,, The largest Christian population in Turkey is in Istanbul , which has a large community of Armenians and Greeks. Istanbul is also where the Patriarchate of Greek Orthodox Christianity is located. Antioch , located in Turkey's Hatay province , is the original seat of the namesake Antiochian Orthodox Church , but is now the titular see. The area, known for having ethnic diversity and large Christian community, has 7, Christians and 14 active churches.
The city has one of the oldest churches in the world as well, called the Church of St Peter , which is said to have been founded by the Saint himself. Tur Abdin is a large area with a multitude of mostly Syriac Orthodox churches, monasteries and ruins. Settlements in Tur Abdin include Midyat. The Christian community in Midyat is supplemented by a refugee community from Syria and has four operating churches. The Syriac Orthodox Church has a strong presence in Mardin. Many Syriacs left during the genocides in By some estimates, in the early s there were between 10, and 20, Catholics and Protestants in Turkey.
In the Bishop of Europe, Geoffrey Rowell , caused controversy by ordaining a local man to minister to Turkish-speaking Anglicans in Istanbul. The Armenian Apostolic Church traces its origins to St. It is one of the most ancient churches. Historically, the Armenian Church accepted only the first three Ecumenical Councils , rejecting the Council of Chalcedon in ; its Christology is sometimes described as " non-Chalcedonian " for this reason.
The Bible was first translated into the Armenian language by St. As of [update] estimates of Turkey's Armenian Orthodox population range from between 50, and 70, There are 35 churches maintained by the religious foundation in Istanbul and its surrounding areas.
Many Syriac refugees in Mardin chose to live outside Christian camps due to jihadist fears
Constantinople became established in the ecclesiastical hierarchy at the Council of Constantinople in Second only to Rome, the legendary origins of the Patriarchate of Constantinople go back to St. Andrew , Metrophanes and Alexander of Constantinople. Constantinople's primacy over the Patriarchates of Alexandria and Antioch was reaffirmed at the Council of Chalcedon in , after which the papacy in Rome supported Constantinople in its dispute with Alexandria over monophysitism. Later, when Rome sought to assert its primacy over Byzantium , the Eastern Orthodox church developed the doctrine of pentarchy as a response.
During the 8th and 9th centuries, Byzantium was embroiled in the Iconoclastic persecution. The Byzantine rite is similar to mass in the Catholic Church and the Divine Office cycle of eight non-Mass services in the Catholic faith.
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Hatay Province including Antakya is not part of the canonic area of the Church of Constantinople. Most of the local orthodox persons are Arabic-speaking. Though the Armenian Apostolic Church was no longer in union with Rome and Byzantium after the Council of Chalcedon, a number of Armenians have converted to Catholicism over the years.
The Armenian Evangelical Church was founded in , after Patriarch Matteos Chouhajian excommunicated members of the "Pietisical Union" who had started to raise questions about possible conflicts between scripture and Church traditions.
- Mor Abrahom Hobel Monastery of Midyat Old City;
- Bleak Christmas for Christian Syrians in historic Turkish town.
- Poèmes antiques et modernes (French Edition).
One church minister said "We wanted the Turks first to become Armenian". Hagop A. Chakmakjian commented that "the implication was that to be Christian meant to be identified with the Armenian people". The Christian population of the West Syriac Rite probably has the most regional influence in Turkey, as its population wasn't confined to or was centered in Istanbul like the rest of the Christian communities of Turkey were. Active churches are located in Istanbul , Diyarbakir , Adiyaman , and Elazig. Up until the s the Syriac population was concentrated there as well, but a large amount of the population has fled the region to Istanbul or abroad due to the Kurdish-Turkish conflict present.
The Church structure is still organized however, with 12 reverends stationed in churches and monasteries there. Churches of the West Syriac Rite include:. The Nestorian Church of the East church in Turkey was completely wiped out in the Assyrian Genocide , although they were originally centered in Hakkari.
The Chaldean Branch is based primarily in Istanbul, although its church structure is centered in Diyarbakir. Churches of the East Syriac Rite include:. The Armenian Protestants own three Istanbul churches from the 19th century. There are churches for foreigners in compounds and resorts, although they are not counted in lists of churches as they are only used by Tourists and Expats.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Overview of Christianity and churches in Turkey. Islam in Turkey.
Christianity in Turkey. Judaism in Turkey. Sephardi Ashkenazi Romaniote Sabbatean. Minor religions. Middle East. North America. South America. Main article: Early christianity. Main article: Armenians in Turkey. Main article: Greek Orthodox Church. Main article: Catholic Church in Turkey. Main article: Protestantism in Turkey. This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it. Christianity portal Turkey portal. Retrieved February 8, Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on June 4, Retrieved February 9, Nikolaos Andriotis. Editors' Introduction. Archived from the original on May 11, Retrieved June 11, Today's Zaman.
December 15, Archived from the original on May 20, Retrieved May 16, Archived from the original on December 18, Retrieved February 18, Archived from the original on May 2, Archived from the original on October 17, Retrieved November 3, Archived from the original on July 8, Retrieved August 11, Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion. Archived from the original on November 26, Retrieved October 20, Official Tourism Portal of Turkey.
April 15, Archived from the original on April 15, Rusch Eerdmans Publishing. Constantinople has been the seat of an archiepiscopal see since the fourth century; its ruling hierarch has had the title of"Ecumenical Patriarch" The Encyclopedia of Christianity. The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople is the ranking church within the communion of Between the 4th and 15th centuries, the activities of the patriarchate took place within the context of an empire that not only was July 10, The Oxford Handbook of Christianity in Asia. Archived from the original on June 5, Retrieved July 25,
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