The two systems, however, may be distinguished in several ways.
By contrast, Soviet communism grew out of a revolutionary theory of society, pursued the goal of revolutionary overthrow of capitalist systems internationally, and employed the complex bureaucratic structures of the Communist Party as mechanisms of governmental organization. Western constitutional democracies have provided examples of another type of contemporary dictatorship. At various points in the 20th and 21st centuries, during periods of domestic or foreign crisis, most constitutional regimes conferred emergency powers on the executive , suspending constitutional guarantees of individual rights or liberties or declaring some form of martial law.
Indeed, the constitutions of some Western democracies explicitly provide for the grant of emergency powers to the executive in a time of crisis to protect the constitutional order. In many cases, of course, such provisions have been the instruments with which dictators have overthrown the regime. In other democracies, however, constitutional arrangements have survived quite lengthy periods of crisis government. After World War II , for example, in both the United States and Britain , the use of extraordinary powers by the executive came to a halt with the end of the wartime emergency.
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- Adolf Hitler.
- Le Tour du monde en quatre-vingts jours (French Edition).
Many forces at work in the late 20th and early 21st centuries have appeared to lend impetus to the rise of monocratic forms of rule. In nearly all political systems, the powers of chief executives have increased in response to the demanding social, economic, and military crises of the age. The complex decisions required of governments in a technological era, the perfectionist impulses of the great bureaucratic structures that have developed in all industrialized societies, and the imperatives of national survival in a nuclear world continue to add to the process of executive aggrandizement.
The question for many constitutional regimes is whether the limitation and balance of power that are at the heart of constitutional government can survive the growing enlargement of executive power.
The first jobs of 12 dictators
In the Aristotelian classification of government, there were two forms of rule by the few: aristocracy and its debased form, oligarchy. Although the term oligarchy is rarely used to refer to contemporary political systems, the phenomenon of irresponsible rule by small groups has not vanished from the world. Many of the classical conditions of oligarchic rule were found until the 20th century in those parts of Asia in which governing elites were recruited exclusively from a ruling caste—a hereditary social grouping set apart from the rest of society by religion , kinship, economic status, prestige , and even language.
In the contemporary world, in some countries that have not experienced the full impact of industrialization, governing elites are still often recruited from a ruling class—a stratum of society that monopolizes the chief social and economic functions in the system. Such elites have typically exercised power to maintain the economic and political status quo.
The Dictator of Britannica - A. N. Shekarnia - Google книги
The simple forms of oligarchic rule associated with pre-industrial societies are, of course, rapidly disappearing. For some years he lived a lonely and isolated life, earning a precarious livelihood by painting postcards and advertisements and drifting from one municipal hostel to another. Hitler already showed traits that characterized his later life: loneliness and secretiveness, a bohemian mode of everyday existence, and hatred of cosmopolitanism and of the multinational character of Vienna. In Hitler moved to Munich. Screened for Austrian military service in February , he was classified as unfit because of inadequate physical vigour; but when World War I broke out, he petitioned Bavarian King Louis III to be allowed to serve, and one day after submitting that request, he was notified that he would be permitted to join the 16th Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment.
After some eight weeks of training, Hitler was deployed in October to Belgium , where he participated in the First Battle of Ypres. He served throughout the war, was wounded in October , and was gassed two years later near Ypres. He was hospitalized when the conflict ended. During the war, he was continuously in the front line as a headquarters runner; his bravery in action was rewarded with the Iron Cross , Second Class, in December , and the Iron Cross, First Class a rare decoration for a corporal , in August He greeted the war with enthusiasm, as a great relief from the frustration and aimlessness of civilian life.
He found discipline and comradeship satisfying and was confirmed in his belief in the heroic virtues of war. Adolf Hitler dictator of Germany. See Article History. Top Questions. Read more below: Rise to power. World War II. Start Your Free Trial Today. The awkward case of 'his or her'.
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Test your knowledge of words related to the season of longer days and vacations. Test your visual vocabulary with our question challenge! The dictionary has been scrambled—can you put it back together? Definition of dictatorship. Synonyms for dictatorship Synonyms absolutism , autarchy , authoritarianism , autocracy , Caesarism , czarism also tsarism , despotism , totalism , totalitarianism , tyranny Visit the Thesaurus for More.
Examples of dictatorship in a Sentence The country suffered for many years under his dictatorship. His enemies accused him of establishing a dictatorship. First Known Use of dictatorship , in the meaning defined at sense 1. Learn More about dictatorship.
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