The alliance with Protestant Germany was, therefore, no longer as advantageous as it had been. Religiously, there was a strong Catholic faction at court headed by the powerful and ruthless duke of Norfolk. Finally, by April , Henry had fallen passionately in love with one of Anne's ladies-in-waiting, Catherine Howard , and wanted to marry her.
She was probably born sometime between or Although no authentic portrait of her survives, contemporaries described her as small in stature, not beautiful but pretty and exceptionally vivacious. Unlike the king's fourth wife, Catherine Howard exuded sex appeal and was appealing to men. She was brought up in an impoverished household and, after her mother died, was sent to live with her step-grandmother Agnes Tylney , duchess of Norfolk. During her time there, she had two romantic liaisons, one of which was sexual.
Catherine's education was haphazard at best and she remained headstrong and immature. When she came to court to serve in Anne of Cleves' household, she fell in love with one of the king's courtiers, Thomas Culpeper. Despite this, her fortune changed when the king set his sights on her. Once the king's intentions became known, Catherine's family supported the infatuation and coached the young girl on how to behave with Henry. Events moved rapidly. Cromwell, whom the king blamed for his disastrous marriage to Anne of Cleves, was arrested on June 10, Accused of high treason and heresy, he was sentenced to death without a trial.
Meanwhile, Anne of Cleves had no idea that the king wanted to divorce her. Over the past few months, she was slowly learning to speak English, and it was clear that the people were coming to love and respect her. Nonetheless, the king's mind was made up.
Six Wives of Henry VIII
On July 9, , Parliament granted the king a divorce. Anne of Cleves submitted to Henry's will without protest and was duly rewarded with a substantial settlement of lands and money. Henceforth, she was to be regarded as the King's "good sister. While it is uncertain how Anne felt about this turn of events, it is clear that she was shrewd enough to know that it was not in her best interests to cross the king of England.
After the king's marriage to Catherine Howard on July 28, Anne of Cleves continued to visit the royal court. In all likelihood, she probably enjoyed her new position. She maintained an honorable place at court as first lady after the queen and the royal daughters. Author Antonia Fraser has concluded that like a rich widow, Anne "had a household, a large income and property, untrammelled by any need to bow before any male authority except that of the English King. It was clear that Henry was head-over-heels in love with his new young wife. A contemporary observed that the king was "so amorous of her that he cannot treat her well enough, and caresses her more than he did the others.
Catherine, as an impressionable and pleasure-loving young woman, accepted the king's attentions gratefully. As a newlywed couple, they made an interesting sight. Henry VIII was nearly 50 years old and was by now very fat. He had varicose ulcerations on his legs which caused him pain and did not improve either his moods or his temper.
His bride, on the other hand, was small, young and slender. Their marriage, however, appeared to be a success. Anne of Cleves continued to visit the court, and on New Year 's Eve she and Catherine Howard danced together while Henry retired early to bed.
By the spring, Catherine took a step which ultimately led to her downfall. She resurrected her relationship with Thomas Culpeper. For several months, her affair went undetected. By late autumn, while she and the king were on a tour of the northern counties, an informant told Archbishop Cranmer of her past behavior.
Although divulging secrets was not unusual in royal courts, it is likely that a faction in the palace, fearful that the reactionary religious party was gaining too much influence, betrayed Catherine. Her fall was swift. By November, her lovers were interrogated and tortured. Henry was outraged and threatened to kill Catherine himself.
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It was up to Archbishop Cranmer, however, to wrest a confession out of her. When he confronted her, she collapsed and told him everything. He reported, "I found her in such lamentation and heaviness, as I never saw no creature, so that it would have pitied any man's heart in the world, to have looked upon her.
According to legend, before she left Hampton Court, Catherine Howard attempted to plead with Henry but was dragged away, screaming, by her attendants. The gallery is said to be haunted by a woman clad in white whose screams vanish with her. By December, most members of the Howard family were sent to the Tower of London and by February Catherine was also transferred there. Although she had never confessed to her adultery with Culpeper which was grounds for treason , she was condemned to die on February 11, , under an Act of Attainder.
Two days later, she was executed on the same block and in the same place as her cousin Anne Boleyn. She was not yet After the death of Catherine Howard, the king was once again looking for a new wife. This time, however, there was no young lady waiting to take over as queen, such as the situation had been when the king married Anne Boleyn and Jane Seymour.
Some members of the English court secretly hoped that Henry might reconcile with Anne of Cleves, though this was not something the king himself envisioned. Henry, adhering to England's traditional enmity with France, chose to side with the emperor thus ruling out any chance for a French bride. By early , it appeared that he had already made his choice. The king was becoming close to a widow named Catherine Parr. The Parrs were a wealthy aristocratic family who had connections to the royal lineage, and Catherine's mother had served as a lady-in-waiting for Catherine of Aragon.
In , her father died leaving her mother to care for her three children. Moving away from London and the royal court, Catherine was brought up on the family estates in Northamptonshire. Her education was typical of aristocratic young women, though she did not learn Latin until much later on in life.
Nonetheless, she developed a deep and abiding love of learning. Her first marriage took place in when she was just 17 years old. She was married to a young aristocrat, Edward Borough, whose father served in the household of Anne Boleyn. Three years later, he died leaving Catherine a widow at age Since it was difficult for any woman, wealthy or poor, to survive economically on her own, Catherine married for the second time in This time, her husband was much older. John Neville, Lord Latimer, at age 40, was 20 years older than his young bride. Nonetheless, Catherine's second marriage appeared to be a happy and successful one.
She was responsible for a large household in Yorkshire as well as bringing up her husband's daughter from a previous marriage. During the last years of her husband's life, Catherine spent more time in London where she developed connections with the royal court. It was during this period that Catherine also became interested in the more evangelical aspects of the reformed religion.
The Six Wives of Henry VIII - Wikipedia
In February , just two weeks before the death of her husband, King Henry presented several gifts to Catherine. While she was pleased by the king's attention, she soon faced a personal dilemma. She had fallen in love with Thomas Seymour, brother of the late Queen Jane, and now had to decide between duty to her family or love.
She chose duty. In a letter to Thomas, she explained: "As truly as God is my God, my mind was fully bent to marry you before any man I know.
Howbeit, God withstood my will … and made me renounce utterly mine own will, and to follow his will most willingly. The year-old queen had light auburn hair and was the tallest of Henry's six wives. She enjoyed dancing and dressing well. In one year, for example, she ordered 47 new pairs of shoes. Catherine Parr was also fond of music and animals. During her years as queen of England, she lived up to her motto: "To be useful in all I do.
As always with royal marriages, the new queen's family rose quickly in status. Catherine's sister, her cousin and her stepdaughter soon joined her household while her brother was created earl of Essex. She was greatly admired by everyone and, more important, developed an excellent relationship with all three of her royal stepchildren.
Nearly everyone approved of the new queen.
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The Lord Chancellor described her as "a woman, in my judgment, for certain virtue, wisdom and gentleness, most meet for His Highness. And sure I am that his Majesty never had a. This was an unrealistic hope, for Catherine's year-old husband was content with his new wife. To prove his trust in her, Henry declared Queen Catherine regent to rule in his name when he went on campaign in France in July Affectionate letters were exchanged between the royal couple until Henry returned in October.
Household records confirm that she attempted to ease his pain with various herbal remedies and soothing massages. The last years of Henry's reign were dominated by a struggle for power between the two most important factions at court: the Seymours and the Howards. Both represented differing aspects of the religious atmosphere during the king's remaining years. The Seymours adhered to more evangelical and, for Henry, more subversive views, while the Howards were closely akin to the king's own "Catholic" religious preferences. Henry, who had never been a tolerant man, became less so in his declining years and an increasing persecution of heretics characterized the remaining time of his reign.
Catherine Parr was a pious woman whose religious tendencies differed from those of her husband. This is readily apparent in her second religious treatise, The Lamentation of a Sinner , which, significantly, was not published until after Henry's death in The work was strongly anti-papal and advocated a personal study of the Bible. Although she usually kept her religious opinions to herself during her marriage, on several occasions she argued with Henry about religion.
No woman since Anne Boleyn was ever allowed to contradict the king, and in July Henry began taking steps to remove Catherine by charging her with heresy. Fortunately, Catherine became aware of the king's intentions and, using all of her tact and intelligence, managed to have the charges dropped. Taking refuge in traditional sexual stereotypes, she told Henry that she would no longer discuss religious matters with him because, as a woman, she was subject to his will. In a masterful display of discretion, she also asserted that the only reason she had argued with him was in an effort to get his mind off the pain in his legs.
Her arguments were persuasive, and the king, giving her "very tender assurances of constant love," was once again reconciled with his queen. From this point on, Henry VIII's health began to deteriorate, and Catherine spent more and more of her time nursing her ailing husband. Catherine never saw her husband again. Thirty-six-year-old Catherine Parr was once again a widow.
This time, however, as queen dowager, she was still first lady of England until Edward married. Though the exact date of their marriage is unknown, it is likely that it took place sometime in March Eight months later, Catherine Parr was pregnant with her first child. During Catherine's marriage to Seymour, Princess Elizabeth came to live in their household.
Catherine and Elizabeth had developed a deep and abiding friendship which, unfortunately, became threatened when Catherine's husband began flirting with the young princess. Although her love for Elizabeth was strong, Catherine sent her away.
While contemporaries believed that Catherine took this step out of jealousy, it is more likely that her decision was based on a deep concern for the princess' reputation and safety. Despite this incident, Catherine's marriage to Seymour was a happy one. On August 30, she gave birth to a girl whom they named Mary. Unfortunately, like many other women in the 16th century, Catherine did not survive the birth. She soon fell ill with puerperal fever and died on September 5, , at age Her infant daughter died on the same day.
Beset by money problems, she lived through the short reign and death of Edward VI and spent the last years of her life under the reign of her close friend Queen Mary I. She never lived to see the coronation of Elizabeth and died on July 16, , at age Baldwin-Smith, Lacy. London: Jonathan Cape, Warnicke, Retha.
The Rise and Fall of Anne Boleyn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Loades, David. Mary Tudor : A Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Scarisbrick, J. Henry VIII. Anne of the Thousand Days min. Anne returned to England in and became a popular figure at court. By Henry was deeply in love with her. Henry was desperate for an heir to continue the Tudor dynasty and to avoid any future civil war. Twenty years of marriage to Catherine had resulted in just one surviving child, Mary , and now at the age of 40, Catherine was unlikely to bear any more children.
She had married Arthur in , but was widowed aged just It took a further seven years before Henry and Catherine were married in At the time of their marriage, Henry was 18 and very much in love with the 23 year old Catherine. However Henry now wanted a divorce so he could marry Anne. Catherine insisted that she had been a virgin when she married Henry and refused to accept an annulment of the marriage.
Pope Clement VII was put in a difficult position as any decision he made would anger one or the other. He delayed announcing a decision for as long as possible before refusing to grant the divorce. Wolsey had failed to secure the divorce for Henry and was deposed from office. Thomas More was brought in to replace Wolsey as Chancellor. Henry took matters into his own hands and broke from Rome and the Roman Catholic Church.
Excommunicated by the Pope, in Henry divorced Catherine and married Anne, who was now pregnant. Catherine, now Princess Dowager of Wales, was forced to leave court. For the next three years she lived in seclusion in a series of dank castles and manors with just a few servants. Prior to the break with Rome, for centuries Mass had been said in Latin. Cranmer believed it was important for the people to worship in English and so was responsible for the first English Bible authorized for public use which was distributed to every church in the land.
Revolts against the new Church of England and the new service were put down. Thomas Cromwell became Vicar-General and later Chancellor and was instrumental in the Dissolution of the Monasteries from to Ironically after all this upheaval, the longed-for child was a girl, Elizabeth , and Henry was bitterly disappointed. On 2nd May , Anne was arrested. On 19th May Anne was beheaded at the Tower of London- the first English queen to be publicly executed. Henry married his mistress Jane Seymour just over a week later. The ruins of Glastonbury Abbey. Jane, a committed Catholic, begged Henry to abandon the Dissolution of the Monasteries.
However when she gave birth to the long awaited male heir, Edward in , all was forgiven and Henry was ecstatic. Unfortunately following the birth Jane contracted puerpural fever and died: Henry was distraught. The Dissolution of the Monasteries began in and ended in Monastic lands, works of art and buildings were sold off. Charismatic and beguiling, Anne Boleyn enchanted the king away from his first wife and promised him a son. Teenage Catherine Howard seemed a dream come true to her aging husband, but past and present scandals caught up with her and she ended in the Tower.
Final wife Katherine Parr was an intelligent companion for the king and an excellent step-mother to his children, whom she helped shape into the future of the dynasty. Skip to main content. Enter some words or an event code to find. This program is sold out.
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