In the years that followed, many American institutions referred to the "Surrey Calendar," as it came to be known, as they built microfilm collections of these documents. In the Library of Congress began to make photostatic copies of the documents; but it was only after , thanks to the Wilbur and Rockefeller endowments, that the large-scale microfilm reproduction of these documents began, an effort that adopted the 35mm format in the s. In the Library of Congress appointed Ulane Zeeck Bonnel to direct the reproduction of French archival materials.
Then, in , Glenn R. Conrad began to assemble a collection of colonial records at the University of Southwestern Louisiana in Lafayette, an undertaking continued after by the Center for Louisiana Studies. Another historian at this university, Carl A. Brasseaux, dreamed of creating a modern "Surrey Calendar" and began to work towards this goal.
Meanwhile, Alfred E. Lemmon of The Historic New Orleans Collection, who in had begun to collect microfilm copies of French archival holdings, including charts, plans, and census data, also became convinced of the need for a new edition of the Calendar , this time published as an electronic database. While Surrey's Calendar was an essential tool for researchers studying the history of the Mississippi Valley, only a small number of the books were printed, and it was not widely available.
As rare and dated as it is, Surrey's Calendar remains the standard reference work for researchers and institutions, and it has served as the basis for the great majority of copy requests for archival materials. However, since the s historians and researchers have continued to compile and publish Mississippi Valley materials. While not specifically focused on Louisiana, this guide was the first attempt to investigate the materials in departmental archives in France.
Introduction to the Surrey Calendar
Finally, I myself have compiled lists of source materials for Louisiana and French history on the bilingual internet site that I have organized for the French Ministry of Culture: www. They decided to unite their efforts so that the updated form of the Calendar might one day see the light of day, and The Historic New Orleans Collection agreed to fund this ambitious project.
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This new impulse in the academic realm was concomitant with the Civil Rights Movement of the sixties, which made many American minorities eager to search their origin. The publication of Roots , from A. Haley, achieved a national success increased by the TV show which followed and launched a sharp interest of Americans for their historical and cultural heritage.
Available in all municipal libraries, it is still assiduously used by those who undertake such searches. The use of documents often confirms or fixes a name or a date already memorized. Searches are not limited to retirees but involve persons of all ages. The numerous genealogical societies created in the region also give assistance to them, while several how-to guides specifically dedicated to Acadian ancestry searches have been published to indicate the procedure for beginners.
Everyone is cousin, to the nth degree if necessary. Then, searches beyond Louisiana borders just deepen an already keen genealogical memory, omnipresent in social relationships. The link is nonetheless confusing, always revealing the indisputable importance of Acadian ancestry without elevating it to the status of an absolute criterion of definition.
These family reunions cause the creation of associations. It also gives access to the history of Acadians from to the present, as well as biographical notes on each identified Acadian exile who has come to Louisiana. The creation of this research center and the information it gives express a growing interest for the search of Acadian ancestors and a desire to encourage the local population to take part in it.
The impetus comes from a group of leading citizens who feel strongly about their Acadian origin and wish to expand this enthusiasm which nonetheless concerns people of very diverse background. One of them specified she had just one while giving me a passionate account of the Acadian exile. This awareness of a mixed origin does not affect in any way the sense of belonging to an Acadian community. On the contrary, these people feel very strongly about it, this attachment being strengthen by a historic memory common to all Acadians.
By , these immigrants crossed the Atlantic to establish in Acadia present-day Nova Scotia. Their community originally consisted of craftsmen, fishermen, trappers and farmers. But at the outbreak of a new war with the French, Acadians were considered unreliable and therefore undesirable. They were ordered to take an oath of allegiance to the English Crown, threatened to be expelled in case of refusal. Suspected to adopt the French cause, they were given a second ultimatum.
The new British military governor, Charles Lawrence, finally chose a radical solution: the deportation. Poorly prepared by the English, these expeditions were fatal to many prisoners, devastated by epidemics, cold and malnutrition. There, they survived in misery before being able to reestablish in the whole Maritimes after the war, in Some were shipped back to France, taking advantage of an agreement between English and French.
Unable to adapt, they decided to leave for Louisiana in Others, in search of a welcoming land, took refuge in the French West Indies, particularly in St Domingo, before heading Louisiana which they reached by successive waves between and To protect against the slave raids and military advances of British-allied tribes such as the Creek, Native American villages in the vicinity of Mobile developed close working relationships with the French.
The Choctaw and Chickasaw were especially influential in how the French developed strategies to defend against British encroachment throughout frontier areas east of the Mississippi River. A census recorded individuals in the French colony: 60 Canadian coureurs des bois woods runners or backwoodsmen ; soldiers, seamen, and craftsmen employed by the Crown; and Indian slaves and European men, women, and children. A handful of Catholic missionary priests traveled through or settled in the colony, though with limited success at evangelizing Native Americans and gaining support from the French laity.
With no clear leader, the political organization of Louisiana bore modest resemblance to Canada, its neighbor to the north. Quite the opposite happened, as Bienville became acting governor in , later replaced in by the founder of Detroit, Sieur Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac , as the first official governor of Louisiana.
Antoine Crozat, councilor and financial secretary to Louis XIV — , received a fifteen-year commercial monopoly over Louisiana in Crozat attempted to organize the colonial government of Louisiana according to Canadian standards by dividing military and civil affairs among the three offices of commandant, governor, and ordonnateur. He also created a court known as the Superior Council. In reality, daily life in Lower Louisiana remained largely independent of Canadian oversight.
Situation de la Louisiane avant la restitution de 1800 : un empire manqué…
The European population increased from approximately to inhabitants during the Crozat years — Fur trading remained the primary source of income for the colony. There were also rather unsuccessful attempts, first, to trade with Spanish and French West Indian posts, and, second, to harvest silk, indigo, and other cash crops. Louis Juchereau de St. Denis conducted an expedition up the Red River, resulting in the establishment of a French post at Natchitoches. Cadillac made a similar trip in search of lead mines, which resulted in the foundation of Fort Rosalie near present-day Natchez.
The French also benefited from the start of the Yamasee War in , a conflict between colonial South Carolina and Native Americans, which took the attention of the English away from making military and economic alliances with the Creek and Chickasaw. Crozat pulled out of the company contract in The Scotsman John Law then assumed control over all commercial affairs in Louisiana under the auspices of the Company of the West, later called the Company of the Indies. Bienville moved the colonial capital from Mobile to New Orleans in Outside New Orleans, the company granted land concessions to wealthy Frenchmen along the Mississippi River.
Upstart settlers and established elites smuggled trade goods throughout the Mississippi Valley and Caribbean in order to avoid the mercantilist policies of the French Crown. However, the number of European settlers dropped to fewer than 2, by the end of the s, due largely to high death rates and the decision of many to abandon the colony. Roman Catholic priests and nuns contributed to the social development of French colonial Louisiana throughout the early eighteenth century.
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Several priests of the Foreign Mission worked as missionaries among Native Americans and chaplains among French settlers. The bishop of Quebec granted ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the European population and those enslaved by Europeans of Lower Louisiana to the Capuchins. The Jesuits, in turn, were responsible for the missionization of Native Americans outside the confines of French posts.
This bipartite organization of the clergy led to considerable conflict, often resulting in the deterioration of Indian missions and lay-clerical relations.
Chronologie de la Louisiane — Wikipédia
Nicolas-Ignace de Beaubois — , Jesuit superior of Lower Louisiana, established a permanent male missionary presence in and around New Orleans in A troupe of twelve Ursuline nuns also arrived at New Orleans in Marie Madeline Hachard, the youngest of the women in habits, left a record of her life as a missionary, which was published in France for the edification of young women. In addition to their roles as religious leaders, Catholic priests and nuns busied themselves with mundane aspects of life in French colonial Louisiana.
They bought and sold slaves. They negotiated with company and Crown officials for salaries, property, and power. In short, their experiences were not entirely different from those of other European settlers.
The forced migration of approximately 6, enslaved Africans constituted the most significant demographic alteration to French colonial Louisiana during the s. Approximately two-thirds of the enslaved came from the Senegambian region of West Africa, while the rest came from the Bight of Benin and Angola. They brought with them knowledge of rice, corn, tobacco, cotton, and indigo cultivation, as well as an assortment of technologies and skills related to craftsmanship, all of which were considered useful for the development of a fledgling colony in the Americas.
African slaves interacted with Indian slaves on a daily and intimate basis, effectively undermining the intention of French masters to control the thoughts and actions of their human property. In French officials implemented the Code Noir in hopes of regulating the everyday lives of enslaved and free people of African descent in Louisiana, much as governments had done in other French colonies throughout the Caribbean. By enslaved Africans accounted for approximately 65 percent of the total population of Louisiana.
The large majority of African slaves lived on private plantations along the Mississippi River away from New Orleans. People of African descent born in the colony, or Afro-Creoles, would constitute more than 50 percent of the total population of Louisiana by the end of the French colonial period in Economic development in French colonial Louisiana remained limited during the s. The company established Fort Chartres as a way to advance the fur trade in the Illinois Country, only to be greatly disrupted during the wars between the French and the Fox Indians of the late s.
English encroachment upon the fur trade in present-day Mississippi and Alabama also diminished French influence among neighboring petites nations. And despite the marginally successful cultivation of tobacco near Fort Rosalie, the so-called Natchez Revolt of contributed to an economic downturn in Lower Louisiana that lasted through the s.
On the morning of November 28, , Natchez warriors killed more than French men, women, and children, and captured around African slaves and 50 French women and children. Rumors of a Natchez conspiracy against Fort Rosalie preceded the attack, in which some enslaved Africans played a role. The French government responded to the Natchez revolt by disbanding the company and reclaiming Crown authority over Louisiana.
Related Louisiane (Grands romans) (French Edition)
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