Having been created in April to bring together civilian and military projects, the United States was fully aware that MIMI was linked to nuclear, chemical and biological weapons programmes. Yet it was regularly inundated with dozens of dual-use technologies, licensed for export by the U. By , the United States knew of a ballistic missiles programme in operation there. Yet the Department of Commerce continued to licensed exports for dual-use technologies to this installation.
Douglas Frantz and Murray Waas of the Los Angeles Times report that in of cases with potential nuclear applications, export licenses were approved. According to U. Congressman Henry Gonzalez, two of every seven U. Some of the 17 bacterial and viral cultures licensed by the U. As the torrent of military and financial assistance continued to pour into Iraq, Saddam was busy applying this aid - which came to him not only from the U. According to former U. Saddam was also busy violently oppressing his own people, cracking down particularly on the Kurds of northern Iraq - including, for instance, according to Amnesty International, the abduction and torture of about three hundred children from Kurdish families.
Fruit trees, graveyards and cemeteries stand as reminders of the absent people and livestock. In February , Saddam instigated an even more massive campaign against the Kurds. His troops employed the traditional methods of destruction. By 16 March , the Iraqi air force was strafing Halabja with mustard gas and nerve toxins. As Professor Jentleson observes, this death toll is proportionate to over a half million deaths in a city the size of New York. Such atrocities did not suffice for the United States and its Western allies to cease military assistance to the regime.
Even the Halabja atrocities only led to the token tightening of a few export controls related to chemical weapons manufacture and the production of what amounted to an effectively meaningless condemnatory resolution in the UN Security Council. These gestures were apparently propagandistic in purpose, since they unfortunately did not amount to any significant reduction in U.
The 1991 Gulf Massacre
Indeed, the possibility of sanctions being imposed on Iraq due to the massacres was deliberately blocked by the U. Bruce Jentleson observes that after the Halabja massacres, the U. Between September and December , sixty-five licenses were granted for dual-use technology exports - this averages out as an annual rate of licenses: more than double the rate between January and August which involved the granting of 85 licenses, amounting as Jentleson notes to a annual rate.
In January , reports of Iraqi germ warfare capabilities in the open specialised press emerged. Further domestic chemical attacks on an unprecedented scale were initiated by Saddam only a few days later. Yet as noted above, the aftermath of these attacks did not result in a reduction in U. This figure should be compared to the figures when the U. The disparity constituted a momentous increase of over per cent, with U. Iraq became the twelfth largest market for American agricultural exports in the s; for some crops e.
Iraq was, in fact, second only to Mexico as a beneficiary of CCC export credit guarantees. Jentleson reports that in sectors such as petroleum, electricity generation, petrochemicals, steel, and transportation, billions of dollars in contracts were being fervently signed. One of the groups which was particularly active in ensuring that the U. Ambassador to Oman as well as former ranking U. These elite sectors possess the most powerful leverage over policy; and the results, as is now quite evident, are globally catastrophic. Certainly it was partly tactical, aimed at preventing outright victory for the ascendant Islamic Republic of Iran in the Iran-Iraq war.
Certainly it reflected the three long-standing goals of US policy in the Middle East: protection of Israel, control of access to oil and stability.
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On the contrary, Western strategic and economic interests are the driving force of foreign policies that are systematically anti-humanitarian and counter-democratic. VIII, p. It is essential to note in this connection that the ongoing Western desire to control Middle East oil has nothing to do with security, and everything to do with the simple maximisation of corporate profits. Just increasing the efficiency of American cars by three miles per gallon could replace all U. II, Vol. II, pp. Most of Palestine was to have been under international control.
The agreement excluded the districts "west of the districts of Damascus, Homs, Hama and Aleppo" as specified in the Hussayn-McMahon agreement, extending the line south so that Palestine was excluded from Arab control. The agreement also excluded two much larger areas that would be under direct British and French control, and split the Arab area into zones of British and French influence that would preclude full independence.
Also see Aburish, Said K. Middleton to A. In fact, the revolution occurred much earlier. Squeezed to death , The Guardian , 4 March Weapons at War: U. H H; Iraq Got U. The Gulf War and Implications for U. Policy , Praeger, New York, , p. Gave Iraq Bacteria, Sen. Agricultural Export Programs , p. State Department Memorandum, U. Jentleson chooses not to draw conclusions about the structure of U. However, Jentleson hardly ever compromises on facts, and his study therefore suffices as a most lucid documentation of U. In his failure to comprehend the implications of his own analysis, however, in regard to the inherent orientation of U.
His conclusions are therefore conditioned by this standpoint. For a further insight into the horrifying policies of repression and torture that the West supported by propping up Saddam, see Al-Hilli, Walid, Human Rights in Iraq , London, Article licensed under Creative Commons. Support Voltaire Network. In order to continue our work, we need you to support our efforts. Help us by making a contribution.
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Enhanced Typesetting: Enabled. Page Flip: Enabled. Language: French. Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. Amazon Advertising Find, attract, and engage customers. Amazon Drive Cloud storage from Amazon. Although all members of the British Army are expected to swear allegiance to Elizabeth II as their commander-in-chief , the Bill of Rights of requires parliamentary consent for the Crown to maintain a peacetime standing army. Therefore, Parliament approves the army by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years; the army is commanded by the Chief of the General Staff.
Britain's victories in these decisive wars allowed it to influence world events and establish itself as one of the world's leading military and economic powers. Since the end of the Cold War , the British Army has been deployed to a number of conflict zones as part of an expeditionary force, a coalition force or part of a United Nations peacekeeping operation; until the English Civil War , England never had a standing army with professional officers and careerist corporals and sergeants.
It relied on militia organized by local officials, or private forces mobilized by the nobility, or on hired mercenaries from Europe. From the Middle Ages until the English Civil War, when a foreign expeditionary force was needed, such as the one that Henry V of England took to France and that fought at the Battle of Agincourt , the army, a professional one, was raised for the duration of the expedition. During the English Civil War, the members of the Long Parliament realised that the use of county militia organised into regional associations commanded by local members of parliament, while more than able to hold their own in the regions which Parliamentarians controlled, were unlikely to win the war.
So Parliament initiated two actions. The Self-denying Ordinance , with the notable exception of Oliver Cromwell , forbade members of parliament from serving as officers in the Parliamentary armies; this created a distinction between the civilians in Parliament, who tended to be Presbyterian and conciliatory to the Royalists in nature, a corps of professional officers, who tended to Independent politics, to whom they reported. The second action was legislation for the creation of a Parliamentary-funded army, commanded by Lord General Thomas Fairfax , which became known as the New Model Army.
While this proved to be a war winning formula, the New Model Army, being organized and politically active, went on to dominate the politics of the Interregnum and by was disliked; the New Model Army was paid off and disbanded at the Restoration of the monarchy in For many decades the excesses of the New Model Army under the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell was a horror story and the Whig element recoiled from allowing a standing army. The militia acts of and prevented local authorities from calling up militia and oppressing their own local opponents.
Calling up the militia was possible only if the king and local elites agreed to do so. Charles II and his Cavalier supporters favoured a new army under royal control; the first English Army regiments, including elements of the disbanded New Model Army, were formed between November and January and became a standing military force for Britain. Parliamentary control was established by the Bill of Rights and Claim of Right Act , although the monarch continued to influence aspects of army administration until at least the end of the nineteenth century. By it had grown to 7, soldiers in marching regiments, 1, men permanently stationed in garrisons.
A rebellion in allowed James II to raise the forces to 20, men. There were 37, in In , William III expanded the army to 74,, to 94, in Parliament was nervous, reduced the cadre to in Scotland and Ireland had theoretically separate military establishments, but they were unofficially merged with the English force. By the time of the Acts of Union , many regiments of the English and Scottish armies were combined under one operational command and stationed in the Netherlands for the War of the Spanish Succession.
Although all the regiments were now part of the new British military establishment, they remained under the old operational-command structure and retained much of the institutional ethos and traditions of the standing armies created shortly after the restoration of the monarchy 47 years earlier. The order of seniority of the most-senior British Army line regiments is based on that of the English army.
SAS 34 Kill Henry Kissinger (French, Electronic book text)
President since John Adams in ; the term "White House" is used as a metonym for the president and his advisers. The residence was designed by Irish-born architect James Hoban in the neoclassical style. Hoban modelled the building on Leinster House in Dublin , a building which today houses the Oireachtas , the Irish legislature.
Construction took place between using Aquia Creek sandstone painted white; when Thomas Jefferson moved into the house in , he added low colonnades on each wing that concealed stables and storage. In , during the War of , the mansion was set ablaze by the British Army in the Burning of Washington , destroying the interior and charring much of the exterior. Reconstruction began immediately, President James Monroe moved into the reconstructed Executive Residence in October Exterior construction continued with the addition of the semi-circular South portico in and the North portico in Because of crowding within the executive mansion itself, President Theodore Roosevelt had all work offices relocated to the newly constructed West Wing in In the main mansion, the third-floor attic was converted to living quarters in by augmenting the existing hip roof with long shed dormers.
A newly constructed East Wing was used as a reception area for social events. East Wing alterations were completed in By , the residence's load-bearing exterior walls and internal wood beams were found to be close to failure. Under Harry S.
Truman , the interior rooms were dismantled and a new internal load-bearing steel frame constructed inside the walls. Once this work was completed, the interior rooms were rebuilt; the modern-day White House complex includes the Executive Residence, West Wing, East Wing, the Eisenhower Executive Office Building—the former State Department , which now houses offices for the President's staff and the Vice President—and Blair House , a guest residence. In May , New York began construction of Government House for his official residence, but he never occupied it; the national capital moved to Philadelphia in December The July Residence Act named Philadelphia, Pennsylvania the temporary national capital for a year period while the Federal City was under construction; the City of Philadelphia rented Robert Morris's city house at High Street for Washington's presidential residence.
The first U.
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President occupied the Market Street mansion from November to March and altered it in ways that may have influenced the design of the White House; as part of a futile effort to have Philadelphia named the permanent national capital, Pennsylvania built a much grander presidential mansion several blocks away, but Washington declined to occupy it. On Saturday, November 1, , he became the first president to occupy the White House ; the President's House in Philadelphia became a hotel and was demolished in , while the unused presidential mansion became home to the University of Pennsylvania.
The architect of the White House was chosen in a design competition which received nine proposals, including one submitted anonymously by Thomas Jefferson. He is reputed to have met with Hoban then. The following year, he summoned the architect to Philadelphia and met with him in June On July 16, , the President met with the commissioners of the federal city to make his judgment in the architectural competition, his review is recorded as being brief, he selected Hoban's submission.
The building has classical inspiration sources, that could be found directly or indirectly in the Roman architect Vitruvius or in Andrea Palladio styles; the building Hoban designed is verifiably influenced by the upper floors of Leinster House , in Dublin , which became the seat of the Oireachtas. Several other Georgian-era Irish country houses have been suggested as sources of inspiration for the overall floor plan, details like the bow-fronted south front, interior details like the former niches in the present Blue Room ; these influences, though undocumented, are cited in the official White House guide, in White.
McLaglen; the movie starts with the dangerous and cold-blooded arms dealer Kharoun, getting rid of his competitors and adversaries with his army of trained killers. The next one on his list is Prince Malko, which location he has tracked down and planned to attack, but Malko survives the bombing of his castle and flees to the CIA headquarters in New York where he learns that Kharoun owns the serum for a biological mass destruction weapon.
Smith , F. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Volume TWO Chapter TWO
Hidden categories: Articles needing additional references from October All articles needing additional references. Revision History. Special Air Service. Related Images. YouTube Videos. Japanese drawing of the archetypical ninja , from a series of sketches Hokusai manga by Hokusai. As of , the British Army comprises just over 81, trained regular personnel and just over 27, trained reserve personnel.
Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell. In the Battle of Rorke's Drift , a small British force repelled an attack by overwhelming Zulu forces; eleven Victoria Cross es were awarded for its defence. The Central Intelligence Agency is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the federal government of the United States, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence.
President since John Adams in Top: the northern facade with a columned portico facing Lafayette Square Bottom: the southern facade with a semi-circular portico facing The Ellipse. Aerial view of the White House complex, from north.
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